Scottish Rite, Ancient and Accepted
Scottish Rite, Ancient and Accepted
Although the origins of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite connect directly with the Royal Grand Lodge of Kilwinning, the Order of Saint Andrew of the Thistle, that of the Scottish Masters of Saint Andrew, the Rite of Perfection or Heredom and the Lodges of Freemasonry Jacobite or Stuart Freemasonry, the Rite, as we know and practice it today, was not structured until May 31, 1801, when the First Supreme Council of the Sovereign Grand Inspectors General of the XXXIII and Last Degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. From this first Supreme Council all the other legitimate Supreme Councils are born. The one in Spain was established in 1811 and is, due to its antiquity, the third in the world, after those of the United States and France.
The Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite is structured in 33 degrees, of which the first three, which constitute the so-called Symbolic Masonry, depend on the Grand Lodges; making it the remaining 30, that is, from 4 to 33 both inclusive, of the Supreme Councils, one for each country.
Structuring of the ancient and accepted Scottish Rite
The Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite is probably the most practiced and widespread Masonic rite in the world. It is the result of the evolution produced at the beginning of the 19th century of the Scottish system practiced in Paris at the beginning of the 1760s.
Designated by the Latin Constitutions of the Order as “Antiquus Scoticus Ritus Acceptus”, or “Scottish Rite, Ancient and Accepted”, it is the title that has been generally adopted.
The first Scottish Rite was the Scottish Philosophical Rite of the Mother Lodge of Marseilles (ca. 1750), 18 degrees. After the first Scottish Philosophical Rite, the Rite of Heredom or Perfection appeared, composed by the Council of Emperors of East and West (Paris, 1758). The Rite of Perfection of 25 degrees was imported to America by the Hebrew Esteban Morín after receiving a patent for the rite, the number of degrees was expanded, giving rise to the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of 33 degrees, with degrees such as Knight Kadosh.
Meeting in Charleston (South Carolina, USA), five Freemasons (John Mitchell, Federico Dalcho, Manuel de la Mota, Abraham Alejandro and Issac Auld) founded with Morín the Supreme Council of Freemasonry called the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. After the foundation of May 31, 1801, the first Supreme Council was announced by means of a circular issued on December 4, 1802.
The Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite arrived in Europe, and more specifically in France, at the hands of the Earl of Grasse-Tilly, after obtaining a patent from Charleston. Grasse-Tilly tweaked some rituals and teachings and his work today more or less constitutes the Old and Accepted Scottish Rite as it is known in Europe.
There are multiple versions of the R∴ E∴ A∴ A∴ and, even among them, the names of the degrees do not coincide at all. Usually only one of them is worked on, the others being “communiqués”.
It is the meaning and mission of the R∴ E∴ A∴ A∴, in the first place, to make better Masons every day, that is, to increase their intellectual, moral and above all Masonic qualifications through rigorous, progressive, profound and essentially initiatory work. ; and secondly, that those more educated men and more Masons, that is, more men, impose with the force of their ideas and the example of their conduct, the principles of the Rite and Masonry in the profane society.
It is, therefore, a Rite, the most widespread in the world, in which the most traditional symbolic elements are combined with a dynamic of certainly expressive functioning, which allows the development, together with a deep sense of brotherhood, a keen sense of analysis rational that invites us to approach life with criteria where the spiritual and the rational complement each other extraordinarily.
In the Lodges that use the R∴ E∴ A∴ A∴, the Laws that govern the Universe are symbolically represented and their work is fundamentally carried out in two lines that complement each other like the arms of the same body.
In the first place we have the Ritualistic Work or Ritual Practice that will allow, in its degrees of Apprentice, Companion and Master, through a series of ritualistic dramatizations of ancient symbology, to have a greater awareness of the Laws and precepts of nature and of the universe that our simple but attentive observation would discover.
In this sense, the ritual is structured and codified in such a way that it forms a common thread, which can not only transmit a clear and simple general message, but can also activate subconscious and unconscious mechanisms that generate a high sense of transcendence and of the Great Architect of the Universe. This is a Rite in which it is of paramount importance not only to the Practice of the Ritual but also to its spiritual, psychological and conceptual assimilation.
Secondly, within the works of the Lodge, emphasis is also placed on Masonic Works of an intellectual nature. The Works are presented in writing, on a board or traced and, once read in the Tenida, they are treated orally and colloquially between the brothers. In this way, through the different assessments or opinions provided, a deep perception of the subject matter is achieved, with the consequent enrichment and Masonic training that will invariably bear fruit in any field or situation.
Following the eminently dynamic spirit of the Lodges of R∴ E∴ A∴ A∴, as a continuation of the Meeting, the corresponding fraternal Agape or dinner held outside the Lodges is an important part. It is an appropriate space where its members interrelate and develop, if possible to a greater extent, the deep sense of Fraternity that exists among all the Brothers.
Reflecting on the meaning and mission of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite is as much as analyzing its ontology and the applicability and projection of its essence in Society.
It is difficult to find a Rite in which Spiritualism, Humanism and Freedom are harmonized so balancedly, which are the three pillars that support Scottishism. Because the Scottish Rite, Ancient and Accepted, is a traditional and initiatory Rite based on these three elements and based on the profound Masonic fraternity.
The Rite allows, and this would be its first meaning, that an alliance of free men work for the spiritual, moral, intellectual and material progress of Humanity. Consequently, the spiritual vocation of the R∴ E∴ A∴ A∴ leads to a philanthropic humanism.
Spiritualism, Humanism, Fraternity, Philanthropy, are not empty concepts for Scottish Freemasons. Our spirituality is not given to us as if it were a grace, humanism does not appear in us as an innate virtue, fraternity is not spontaneous. These Masonic virtues are reached through individual and collective effort, using an initiatory and progressive tradition (the Rite is a method) that enables a spirituality open to freedom, humanism, equality and an authentic universal brotherhood among men. .
It can be said that the R∴ E∴ A∴ A∴ is as traditional as it is liberal. A Rite that broke with the initiatory tradition or that did not proclaim freedom, and was therefore dogmatic, would cease to be Masonic in both cases.
The mission of the R∴ E∴ A∴ A∴ is always to build. Build the supreme building of an initiatory order, build man and build his fraternity, in short, make better Masons.
The Scottish Rite implies in its ideal a perfect synthesis between the spiritualist humanism of traditional philosophy and modern anthropological humanism.
Although the profane world makes an effort to confront concepts such as universality and difference, we Scottish Freemasons can proclaim that without respect for differences, universalism can degenerate into totalitarianism, and that, without the demand for universal values (that is, without a horizon of universalism) the right to difference could lead to a military confrontation. That is why it is convenient to always keep the universal vocation of Freemasonry thriving.
The Scottish philosophy (which, as we have pointed out, is the perfect synthesis between spiritualism and humanism) aims to highlight its universalist message of freedom and tolerance against all fanaticism, against religious fundamentalism and against xenophobic racism. Because the principles of R∴ E∴ A∴ A∴ are not reduced to a pure theoretical abstraction, but tend to be projected into the profane world through the work and individual example that the Scottish Freemasons exercise in the social, labor, etc., environment, by that each of them belongs.
In the intellectual sphere, intelligence and science are worshiped, using reason as a means of access to truth and introducing man to a relativistic vision in the face of all dogmatic fanaticism.
As for beliefs, our Rite, which is respectful of all religions, defends religious and worship freedom and the independence of political power from religious power.
As we can see there is a specific baggage in the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. Because this is a method, a means, a vehicle for the mason’s perfective learning and for the transmission of intellectual content. A Rite that reduced the formal elements would not be perfect, but believing that form is everything, that is, emptying the Rite of material content, reducing it to a formal ceremony, would mean an ontological alteration of it. The form must never replace, and even less exclude the background, the thought, the deep and essential content of the Rite.
The Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite consists of 33 degrees, of which the first three, which constitute the so-called Symbolic Masonry, depend on the Grand Lodges, making it the remaining 30 of the Supreme Council of the 33rd and Last Degree.
Degrees of R∴ E∴ A∴ A∴:
4. Secret Master.
5. Perfect Master.
6. Intimate Secretary.
7. Provost and Judge or Irish Master.
8. Mayor of the Buildings or Master of Israel.
9. Chosen Master of the Nine,
10. Chosen Master of the Fifteen.
11. Sublime Chosen Knight.
12. Grand Master Architect.
13. Royal Arch.
14. Grand Scotsman of the Sacred Vault of James VI (Grand Elect and Perfect Mason)
15. Knight of the East or of the Sword.
16. Prince of Jerusalem Grand Council, Chief of all Lodges.
17. Knight of East and West.
18. Sovereign Knight Rose Cross. (Sovereign Prince Rosa Cruz)
19. Grand Pontiff or Scottish Sublime, called of the Celestial Jerusalem
20. Venerable Grand Master of all Lodges. Sovereign Prince of Freemasonry, or Master Ad Vitam.
21. Noachite or Prussian Knight.
22. Royal Ax Knight or Prince of Lebanon.
23. Head of the Tabernacle.
24. Prince of the Tabernacle.
25. Knight of the Bronze Serpent.
26. Scottish Trinitarian or Prince of Mercy.
27. Great Commander of the Temple, or Sovereign Commander of the Temple of Jerusalem
28. Knight of the Sun or Prince Adept.
29. Great Scotsman of Saint Andrew of Scotland or Patriarch of the Crusades.
30. Kadosh Knight
31. Grand Inspector, Inquisitor, Commander.
32. Sublime Prince of the Royal Secret.
33. Sovereign Grand Inspector General
Legendary Origins of the R∴ E∴ A∴ A∴
June 24, 1314, summer solstice in the northern hemisphere, dawned cool and misty in the Scottish town of Bannockburn. At nine o’clock in the morning and with the sun high, both armies had taken a combat position and after a final negotiation that was more ritual than practical, the English archers began the battle that would last almost six hours.
Around three in the afternoon, the troops of the androgynous Edward II, king of England and son-in-law of Philip IV, the handsome of France (1), left the battlefield, allowing the fierce Scots to celebrate their victory for a long time, no longer of a battle, but that of a harsh war of independence that had just been achieved under the leadership of their sovereign Robert of the Bruce, Robert I of Scotland.
That battle, on such a symbolic date, would have repercussions not only on the political map of ancient Albion, but also on the evolution of Freemasonry in general and of Scotland in particular, because, as a consequence of the victory of the Scots in the battle of Bannockburn, two very important events occurred from the point of view of the history of Freemasonry, namely, the creation of the Order of Saint Andrew of the Thistle and the beginning of the Stuart dynasty.
After the battle, a grateful Robert de Bruce created the Order of the Knights of Saint Andrew of the Thistle, its first members being several hundred Knights of the Temple, of decisive performance that day of glory of the Scottish arms. Among these experienced warriors there were many Scottish members of the Order of the Temple, but it is also true that a good number of them were French Knights of the Order of the Temple who had come to Scotland fleeing from the persecution, genocide we would say in our days, unleashed against them by the king of France (Philip IV, the beautiful) and Pope Clement V.
The creation of the Order of Saint Andrew of the Thistle allowed the warrior monks to continue to exist legally, protected by a legitimate king, and as we will see later, it was linked to the appearance, some time later, of some of the degrees of the Scottish Rite.
At the Battle of Bannockburn, a friend and comrade-in-arms of the king, named Walter, also had an outstanding performance. Walter was a descendant of Alan Fitzfiaald, a Viking who died in 1114. Walter took, for himself and his descendants, the name of his function, Stewart, which then designated, within the nobility, the position of seneschal (2). The French form Stuart was adopted in 1562 by one of her descendants, the famous Mary Stuart, on her return from France.
Walter Stewart was the most loyal collaborator and supporter of King Robert I of Scotland, marrying his daughter, Princess Marjorie, in 1315, and succeeding him as sovereign of Scotland on the king’s death. Thus began the Stuart dynasty, which maintained very close relations with the operative Freemasonry of its time, to the point that several sovereigns of this family were initiated and elevated to the supreme position of Grand Master. As an interesting detail, we note that the arms of the Stuarts of Lennox appear in the Masonic apron of the Scottish Masters of the Early Grand Scottish Rite or Primitive Scottish Rite.
Following its formation in 1717, the Grand Lodge of London rapidly assumed considerable importance. It incorporated prominent figures and displayed great activity even beyond the limits of England. Under his auspices, the masons of Ireland founded a Grand Lodge in 1729 and those of Scotland constituted in 1736, the Grand Lodge of Saint John of Scotland. For those interested in the history of Spanish Freemasonry, we will remember that the first Lodge constituted outside of England, in accordance with the Constitutions known as Anderson’s and with the Patent Letter of the Great Lodge of London, was the Lodge of Matritense or of the Three Flowers. de Lis (3), constituted in Madrid, by the Duke of Wharton, on February 15, 1728. He would receive the Letter Patent a year later and appear in the registry of the United Grand Lodge of England with the number 50 and the name of French Arms Lodge. The Foundation Charter is preserved in the museum of the United Grand Lodge of England.
Despite the founding of the Grand Lodge of St John of Scotland, the Royal Lodge of Kilwinning, which had been in existence since 1150, continued its independent life. However, after friction with the Grand Lodge of St. John of Scotland, the Royal Lodge of Kilwinning moved its headquarters to Edinburgh in 1743, where it was established under the title of Royal Grand Lodge and Sovereign Grand Chapter of the Kilwinning Order of Heredom and of the Knights Rose Crosses, founding Lodges and Chapters around them under their obedience.
This split between the two Grand Lodges of Scotland was of great importance, as it marks the separation into two branches of Freemasonry: On the one hand, the English system with its three degrees, as it was practiced in the Grand Lodge of England and its foundations. ; on the other hand that of the Royal Grand Lodge of Kilwinning, whose system of degrees will later form the branch of Masonry which has been agreed to be called Scotism, and from which the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite takes its true origins and most of its origins. their degrees.
Kilwinning is a small market town in Aijrshire, situated on the right bank of the River Garnock, 24 miles south-west of Glasgow. Now in ruins, the abbey had been one of the richest in Scotland. Founded around 1140 by Benedictine monks of the Order of Thirion, called by Hugues de Morville, Lord of Cunningham; it was dedicated to Saint Winnin who had lived in that region in the 8th century, giving his name to the nearby town.
Kilwinning, according to tradition, is the birthplace of Scottish Freemasonry; the first Lodge was founded there by “stonemasons” who came from abroad to build the abbey; it is regarded as the Mother Lodge of Scotland.
At the time of King Robert of the Bruce, around 1314, this Lodge admitted as “accepted Masons” the Knights Templar who fled from the persecution unleashed by the King of France and Pope Clement V. Knights who, as has been said before, they contributed to the victory of King Robert I at Bannockburn, being rewarded with the creation of the Order of Saint Andrew of the Thistle, which later merged with the Order of Heredom, acquiring the Lodge as a Royal Lodge.
The Freemason Kings
Let’s go back to the Stuarts, the freemason kings of the 16th and 17th centuries, who reigned over all of Great Britain, as they were kings of England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland:
James I of England and VI of Scotland, born in Edinburgh in 1566 and died in Theobald Park in 1625, was the son of two cousins: Mary Stuart and Henry Stuart of Lennox, Lord Darnley. James I was king of England after Elizabeth I. A devout Anglican, he equally persecuted Catholics and Protestants of the Presbyterian sect. Being a great connoisseur of esotericism, he secretly favored the Rosicrucian assemblies of the Siren’s tavern in London. (4)
In 1593 he created the Royal Rose Cross, with thirty-two knights of the Order of Saint Andrew of the Thistle, founded as we have seen in 1314 by Robert I of Scotland, and re-established by his father, James V of Scotland, in 1540. Crowned in 1603 King of England, on the death of Elizabeth I, reigned over England and Scotland under the name of James I. Scottish operative Masons then had the right to elect a new Grand Master, as James I became Grand Master of the English operative masons.
James I married Anne of Denmark, a marriage from which Charles I was born in Dunferline, Scotland, on November 19, 1600, a king who would die beheaded in London on January 30, 1649, a victim of Cromwell’s cruelty. Carlos I married in 1625 with Enriqueta de Francia, sister of Luis XIII and daughter of Enrique IV. Charles I was a great gentleman, courteous, liberal, divided between the militant Catholicism of his wife and his role as head of the Anglican Church, the state religion from Edward VIII on. Carlos I was a mystic. During his reign, in 1645, the Invisible College was established in London, born of the Rosae Crucis of 1610, by the work of Boyle, Locke and Sir Wren.
In 1633 he ordered John Milne, his master builder, to build, with the collaboration of John Bartonn, in the garden of Hollyrod Palace in Edinburgh, the mysterious “sun clock” described by Fulcanelli (5) . Actually, this emblematic icosahedron of the Great Work would be linked by its decoration not only to Carlos I, his wife and his young son, but also to the Order of San Andrés del Cardo. It would reveal at the same time the march of the Sun of the Wise, the Seal of Wisdom of the alchemists (hence its esoteric sundial) and the mysterious Baphomet of the Knights of the Temple, which in Scotland had become the Order of Saint Andrew del Cardo on June 24, 1314, after Bannockburn’s victory.
The hatred of the Presbyterians will lead to the revolution of 1649, and Cromwell, a fanatic where ever there was one, will have Charles I beheaded. Charles II, his eldest son, thus became king by right, exiled to France with his mother Henriette of France, his sister Henriette of England (6), her court, her armies and, naturally, the Lodges, who also went into French exile.
In 1658 the bigoted Cromwell died, and the following year General Monck, chief of the Scottish army, a member of the Grand Operative Lodge of Edinburgh as an accepted Mason, was made a Knight of St Andrew. Within the Anglo-Scottish operative Freemasonry, the Order of the Scottish Masters of Saint Andrew is formed, which brings together the supporters of the Stuarts who have been received as accepted Masons, a nucleus that will remain practically secret, but that will be the focus of the which will radiate the future Military Lodges of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, under James II.
In 1660 Carlos II ascends to the throne of England thanks to the coup d’état of General Monck. In 1662 he created the famous Royal Society, derived from the Invisible College.
James II, his brother, formerly Duke of York, was born in London in 1633 and died in Saint-Germain-en-Laye in 1701. Captured in 1646 by Cromwell’s troops, he managed to escape and flee to Holland. From 1648 to 1660, the date of the Stuart restoration, he lived in France. (7) During his exile, in Saint Germain en Laye, the officers and non-commissioned officers of the Scottish and Irish regiments who have faithfully followed him, will create the first Military Lodges, the source of French Freemasonry and one of the roots of the Scottish Rite. Old and Accepted. It will be the famous Jacobite Freemasonry or Stuart Freemasonry. In this small court, gentlemen affiliated with the Order of Scottish Masters, established in London in 1659, founded, under royal patronage, the Order of Scottish Masters of Saint Andrew, already openly masonic exteriorization of the Order of Saint Andrew of the Thistle, created by Robert de Bruce three and a half centuries earlier. The ritual they used, with a double meaning, symbolized the rebuilding of the Jerusalem temple by Zerubbabel, but also the restoration of the Stuarts.
The Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite
In Charleston, South Carolina, on May 31, 1801, the First Supreme Council of the Sovereign Grand Inspectors General of the XXXIII and last degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite was founded. In 1802, this Supreme Council issued a circular, also known in the Masonic world as the “Dalcho speech”, as it was Dr. Frederick Dalcho who presided over the drafting commission. From that document, the following should be noted:
“From our ancient archives we are informed of the constitution of the Sublime and Ineffable degrees of Freemasonry in Scotland, in France and in Prussia, after the Crusades. But due to circumstances unknown to us, after the year 1658 they fell into oblivion, until in the year 1744 a gentleman from Scotland came to visit France and established a Lodge of Perfection at Bordeaux.”
When this gentleman arrived from Scotland, the Count of Clermont, Louis of Bourbon, prince of royal blood and grandson of Louis XIV (8) held the Grand Mastership in France. It is under his benign rule (1743-1771) that the Scottish degrees or Scocism (9) flourished in France. Everything indicates that the Scottish Master, who appeared in France in 1743, came from England (10) . Indeed, since 1733 he had appeared within the English Grand Lodge, a Lodge of Scotch Mason’s working in London and known not to have been composed of Scots; in 1735 a Scotch Masters lodge appeared in Bath, which led to the Royal Arch in 1744, which is said to have been a rudimentary form. While on the continent, it would have drifted towards the Scottish Master and his offspring.
In those years, other Rites of Perfection arose in France. The Rite of Heredom or Perfection, composed of 25 degrees, would have arisen in Paris in 1758 as a detachment from the Clermont chapter (11).
The Knight Ramsay (12), preceptor of Carlos Estuardo and Grand Orator of the Order in France, cannot fail to be mentioned. His famous speech is considered as a fundamental testimony about the esoteric thought existing in the “high degrees” of Scottishism of the time, to the point that the origin of these degrees has been attributed to the speech, and not only be the expression of a existing stream. (13)
In France, in the terminology of the eighteenth century, a Scottish Lodge was what we now call a Lodge of Perfection, that is, a Lodge of degrees higher than the 3rd of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. At that time the members of these Lodges had to be part of a symbolic Regular Lodge (grades 1 to 3) and, also, have held one of its three main positions. It is at that time that it became customary to designate the ordinary Lodges as Blue or English Lodges, the first by the color of the master’s cord, while the color of the Scottish masters is red.
The Great Constitutions, of 1786, of the Scottish and Accepted Rite, in its introductory and declaratory part, which culminates with Frederick of Prussia, establish the following:
“These reasons and others, no less serious, impel us to reunite in a single Masonic body all the Rites of the Scottish Rite, whose doctrines are generally admitted in their essentials, as the ancient institutions that are directed to a common center and that do not they are but the main branches of the same tree, they differ only in their formulas, already well known and so easily reconciled. These Rites are those known under the different names of the Ancient Rite, that of Heredom or Hairdom, that of the East of Kilwinning, Saint Andrew, Emperors of East and West, Princes of the Royal Secret or of Perfection, the Philosophical Rite, and the more modern everyone, known as Primitive Rite. Adopting, therefore, as the basis of our conservative reform, the title of the first of these rites and the number of degrees of the hierarchy of the last,
history and legend
Frederick the Great in his Constitutions says that Heredom and Kilwinning are among those that shaped the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. Today nobody disputes that many Templars took refuge in Scotland, after the beginning of the persecution in France. The characteristics of the Orders mentioned above, at a time when little was documented and much was hidden, do not allow direct documentary evidence to be put forward, but there is evidence that, although it does not prove, establishes reasonable certainty that they constitute the ascendancy of current Scotland. In this regard and as certain indications, the “knightly” characteristics of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite are to be highlighted,
That is why we began this work on that distant solstice of San Juan in 1314 in Bannockburn. Because what happened there opened the door of history and legend to several of the most conspicuous protagonists of the saga and the tradition of Scotland and Freemasonry: the members of the Order of Saint Andrew of the Thistle and the Freemason kings of the dynasty stuart.
(1) Felipe I of France, called the beautiful, in union and complicity with Pope Clement V, hatched the plot that led to the outlawing of the Order of the Temple, the seizure of its assets and the murder of its main leaders. The goal was none other than to seize the assets and possessions of the Temple and strengthen the much more docile Order of Malta.
(2) Seneschal: Chief or main head of the nobility, which he governed, especially in war.
(3) It is known by the Name of Lodge of the Three Flowers of Lis following the custom of the time of naming the Lodges by the name of the place where they met. La Matritense did it at the Fonda de las Tres Flores de Lis, located on Calle Ancha de San Bernardo number 17, in Madrid.
(4) In 1590 he sailed to Scania, in northern Sweden, to contact Tycho Brahe at his Uranienborg observatory. Tycho Brahe, astronomer and astrologer, very fond of magic, was the author of the “Magic Calendar” that bears his name. Returning from Uranienborg, James I stopped to visit William IV the Wise, Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel, protector of Tycho Brahe and associated with the Rosicrucians of the time. Back in England, he published his capital work: Daemonologiae hoc est adversus incantationem sive magic institution auctore serenissime potentissimio que Principe.
(5) Fulcanelli. Demeures philosophales (Omnium littéraire, Paris, 1960, t. 11, p. 161).
(6) Future wife of Philip of Orléans, Monsieur, brother of Louis XIV.
(7) Appointed Grand Admiral, he distinguished himself in the fight against the Dutch, from whom he seized New Amsterdam, later baptized New York in memory of his victory. Converted to Catholicism in 1672, a year before his marriage to Mary of Modena (a condition imposed on this marriage), he attracted the hostility of the Whigs, but Parliament failed in his attempts to exclude him from the succession to the throne.
(8) He was also Abbot of Saint Germain des Prés, member of the French Academy and with papal dispensation, commander of the King’s armies in Germany.
(9) Etienne Gout, 33, “The genesis of French Scocism”, magazine ORDO AB CHAO 1994, translation of I\P\H\Diego Rodríguez Mariño.
(11) Valentín Alvarez “Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite and its relationship with other rites” 1999.
(12) Andrew Michael Ramsay was born in 1686 in Ayr, Scotland, and died in Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France, in 1743. He was tutor to great families: Wemyss, Sassenage, Stuart (Rome, 1724), Château-Thierry , Bouillon. He was made Knight of S. Lazarus by the Duke of Orleans, regent of France and Grand Master of that Order, in 1723. A writer, he is the author, among other works, of The Philosophical principles of natural and revealed religion unfolded in geometrical order, 1748.
(13) The first speech was delivered in 1736 in the Parisian lodge St Thomas No. 1, the first Lodge founded in France by English noblemen in 1725, two of whom would be, after the Duke of Wharton, the first Grand Masters of Freemasonry. in that country. The 2nd speech (1737) was before a general assembly of the French Order.
The ancient and accepted Scottish rite for Spain
The first Supreme Council of the 33rd Degree for Spain and its overseas dependencies, was established in Spain in 1808 by King José I, sovereign imposed by Napoleon Bonaparte, after the Spanish Bourbons renounced the Crown. Joseph Bonaparte was Grand Master of the Grand Orient of France. This Supreme Council was dissolved when the king was forced to leave Spanish territory in 1813, after the triumph of the Spaniards loyal to the Cortes of Cádiz.
At the beginning of 1811, the Marquis of Clermont-Tonnerre, as a member of the Supreme Council of France, formed philosophical bodies in Spain that worked up to the XXXII degree of the Scottish Rite. On July 4, 1811, with patents issued to that effect by the Supreme Council of Charleston, of which he had been a founder, the Count of Grasse-Tilly regularly constituted the Supreme Council of the 33rd Degree for Spain and its dependencies, being appointed the I∴ P∴ H∴ Miguel José de Azanza Sovereign Grand Commander.
The members of the Supreme Council during the first absolutist reaction of Fernando VII did not interrupt the Masonic work in Spain, meeting clandestinely and putting their efforts in the reconquest of freedoms.
The military rebellion that began in Cabezas de San Juan forced Ferdinand VII to restore the Constitution of 1812. For this reason Masonry entered an era of tranquility that favored its free development. The Sovereign Grand Commander Agustín Argüelles, who also held the Grand Master of the Grand Orient of Spain, abdicated his position and was replaced by I∴ P∴ H∴ Antonio Pérez de Tudela.
After the invasion of Spain by the French armies by virtue of the agreements of the Holy Alliance, a new absolutist reaction arose in 1823, the Sovereign Grand Commander and some other members of the Supreme Council having to take refuge in England, where they found the generous hospitality of English Masonry. The repression of Fernando VII reached terrible characters because the Royal Cell dictated in Sacedón in 1824 considered it a crime of lese majesty to be a Mason. The royal order of October 9, 1824 sentenced to death anyone who was recognized as a Mason or community member. Among the victims of the cruel repression that numbered in the thousands, the Masonic generals Juan Martín, El Empecinado, Torrijos, and Lacy perished.
At the end of 1829 the persecutions ceased somewhat and the Sovereign Grand Commander, the infante D. Francisco de Paula de Borbón, regrouped the Lodges. In 1833, after the death of Ferdinand VII, Queen María Cristina began to act as Queen Governor, allowing many of the members of the Supreme Council to return to Spain.
Finally, in 1843, after so many persecutions, Spanish Freemasonry was able to reorganize itself, reaching more than 300 lodges. In 1846 the infante Don Francisco had to expatriate to get rid of the persecutions that General Narváez and the clerical reaction made him the object of. As of 1856, Spanish Freemasonry was once again persecuted and was forced to act clandestinely. Neither the Supreme Council nor the Grand Orient could carry out their work and the Philippine Islands were filled with Freemasons exiled by Narváez.
The 1868 revolution that dethroned Queen Elizabeth II allowed Spanish Freemasonry and the Supreme Council, chaired by the M.·.P.·.H.·. Carlos Celestino Mañan and Clark resume their activities. In the philosophical bodies HH∴ figured as prominently as the generals: Serrano, Prim, Duque de la Torre, Count of Reus; and the politicians Manuel Becerra, Praxedes Mateo Sagasta, Nicolás María Rivero and Juan Moreno who were several times deputies and even ministers.
In the month of October 1868, the Supreme Council presented to the Provisional Government a legislative program of Masonic inspiration, made up of fourteen proposals, which among other reforms included the following: freedom of worship, suppression of religious orders, secularization of cemeteries, subjection of the clergy to military service, civil marriage, etc. The program deserved to be attended by the Government.
Shortly before the Savoyard monarchy and taking advantage of the temporary absence of the Sovereign Grand Commander Mañan, several members of the Supreme Council elected H∴ Manuel Ruiz Zorrilla as Sovereign Grand Commander. The split produced within the Supreme Council as a result of these events, caused great confusion in Spanish Freemasonry. To remedy it, the high Masonic spirit of Brothers Mañan and Zorrilla was appealed to, who responded in fraternal terms to the request. H∴ Ruiz Zorrilla in September 1873 resigned from all his Masonic charges.
He was succeeded by H∴ Carvajal who immediately handed over the position to H∴ Mañan, who had resigned his positions at the same time as Ruiz Zorilla trying to seek Masonic conciliation. Elections were held on September 18, 1873, resulting in the election of H∴ José de Carvajal, distinguished lawyer and minister of the Spanish Republic, as Sovereign Grand Commander.
A complete reorganization of the philosophical and symbolic bodies was then carried out, giving, in 1869, the first public manifestations of the Spanish Masonic Family on the occasion of the funeral of the H∴ Brigadier Escalante and later on the occasion of those of the infante don Enrique and the General Prim.
When the Bourbon monarchy was restored in the person of Alfonso XII, disunity spread again in the Spanish masonic family, existing, in addition to the regular Supreme Council, two irregular Supreme Councils. Such a confused situation meant that no Spanish representation could attend the international meeting of Supreme Councils held in Lausanne in 1876.
In 1881 the Supreme Councils chaired by Praxedes Mateo Sagasta and Antonio Romero Ortiz were finally merged, and the latter remained as the only legitimate and regular Sovereign Grand Commander, being recognized as such in 1882 by the M∴ P∴ H∴ Sovereign Albert Pike Grand Commander of the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States and successively by the Supreme Councils of Scotland, Ireland, Greece, etc.
On January 20, 1884, the M∴ P∴ H∴ Antonio Romero Ortiz died. Then, for the first and only time in the history of the Supreme Council, to fill the position of Sovereign Grand Commander, which, at that time, was attached to the Grand Master of the Grand Symbolic Orient, a direct election was called by the Masonic people. The election took place on August 15, 1884 and its result, which is curious to record, was as follows: Manuel Becerra, 2,237 votes; Emilio Castelar, 605; Manuel Ruiz Zorilla, 478; Manuel of the Persian Plain, 296; Jose Maria Beranger, 118; Juan Tellez Vincent, 23; Praxedes Mateo Sagasta, 12; Victor Balaguer, 5; Sergio Martin del Bosch, 4; Jose Carvajal, 2; Juan Utor Fernández, e; Sebastian Salvador, Francisco Pí y Margall, Buenaventura Roignet and José María Panzano one vote each.
When the Sovereign Grand Commander Manuel Becerra resigned in 1889 in favor of Lieutenant Grand Commander Ignacio Rosas, a new era of confusion was produced by wanting to take away its autonomy from Symbolism. On February 8, 1889, it was agreed to merge the two symbolic obediences Grand Orient of Spain and Grand Orient National. Thus the Spanish Grand Orient was born under the direction of H∴ Miguel Morayta Sagrario who was also appointed Sovereign Grand Commander of the Supreme Council in substitution of H∴ Manuel Becerra.
At the advent of the dictatorship of General Primo de Rivera (September 13, 1923), Spanish Freemasonry found itself once again in a difficult situation. Their workshops had to accentuate the secrecy of Masonic works. On April 1, 1924, it was agreed, by means of a solemn and written pact, which stipulated between themselves the Great Federal Symbolic Council of the Great Spanish East and the Supreme Council of Spain, to reform the Statutes of the Supreme Council so that it would be recognized in them the independence of symbolism; declare subsisting the 1922 agreements regarding the autonomy of the Regional Grand Lodges and mutually recognize their authority, respectively, from the Spanish Grand Orient over the first three symbolic degrees and from the Supreme Council of Spain over the so-called philosophical degrees,
On April 14, 1931, with the monarchy overthrown and the Second Republic established, the new laws allowed Spanish Freemasonry to work with greater safety and efficiency. Active members of the Supreme Council at that time were the II∴ PP∴ HH∴ Augusto Barcia, Diego Martínez Barrio, Angel Rizo, Demófilo de Buen, Fermín Zayas, José Boch, Evelio Torent, José Estruch, Manuel Nieto, Antonio Montaner, Manuel Portela Valladares, Francisco Soto Mas, Juan Manuel Iniesta, Isidro Sánchez Martínez, Miguel de Benavides, Pedro Las Heras and Julio Hernández.
On July 18, 1936 there was an uprising by several generals who took up arms against the democratic regime of the Second Republic. In the area of Spain dominated by the rebels, a systematic slaughter was practiced not only of Freemasons but of many unfortunates, moderate liberals who seemed suspected of belonging or having belonged to Freemasonry.
For Spanish Freemasonry the civil war from 1936 to 1939 was catastrophic. During its course and later the persecution against Freemasonry returned, coming to give it legislative form. Thus, on March 1, 1940, the so-called Law of Repression of Freemasonry and Communism was enacted, in which two ideologies that have no relationship of philosophical or organic affinity are arbitrarily equated, for repressive purposes. Being, in addition, as it is, Freemasonry persecuted in the countries in which communist regimes have been established.
As a consequence of the Spanish civil war and the fierce persecution unleashed against Freemasonry, many Freemasons were forced to leave Spain.
The Supreme Council of Mexico, by granting Fraternal Asylum to that of Spain, established, together with that of England in the 19th century, a precedent of Masonic jurisprudence inspired by the highest sense of Fraternity.
The granting of Asylum to the Supreme Council of Spain was approved in the Extraordinary General Session of the Supreme Council of Mexico, held on February 3, 1943, issuing the corresponding Decree.
In 1977, with the end of the dictatorship, the Supreme Council of Spain put an end to his forced exile, returning to his homeland. At present, he maintains agreements of mutual recognition and friendship with the Grand Lodge of Spain, degrees 1, 2 and 3 depending on it, and degrees 4 to 33, both inclusive, depending on the Supreme Council.